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书名:
国际海关新视野
作者:
上海海关
出版社:
中国海关出版社
书号:
978-7-80165-918-7
出版时间:
2012年12月
版次:
第一版
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强制性供应链安全项目

(原文摘自《供应链安全指南》,世界银行编写)

(缉私局刘欣平机场海关孙茜倩译)

一、美国提前货物信息(ACI)

提前货物信息是第一个强制性供应链安全要求——2003年美国海关实施的24小时舱单规则的支撑性概念。此外,美国海关与边境保护局运用自动目标甄别系统来支持提前货物信息理念。目标自动甄别系统实际上是基于内网的执法决策辅助工具,它是美国海关与边境保护局所有目标甄别和风险管理的基础。美国海关与边境保护局运用目标自动甄别系统优化大量提前货物信息的收集、使用、分析、筛选和分发工作。这些收集到的提前货物信息主要用于锁定、甄别和防止潜在的恐怖分子和恐怖分子使用的武器进入美国。

提前货物信息也是《世界海关组织全球贸易安全与便利标准框架》(以下简称《标准框架》)中的组成部分,是四大核心要素之一。世界海关组织指出,《标准框架》统一了进出口和转运货物提前递交的电子货物信息。在美国,提前货物信息在《贸易安全与便利港口法案》中作了规定。

供应链中的所有参与者通过船公司提交的提前货物信息使海关得以筛选进口集装箱,作出有情报根据的目标甄别和干预决定,并把资源集中用于高风险问题和货物。这种建立在风险管理基础上的方法被认为是大多数供应链安全项目的“基石”。

以下介绍一些建立在提前货物信息基础之上的最重要的项目,包括美国24小时规则、“10+2”申报和中国海关的提前舱单申报管理办法、墨西哥的24小时规则和日本的提前货物信息。

二、美国24小时规则(2003)

24小时规则要求海运承运人和无船承运人在最后境外港口输美集装箱装船前的24小时前,向美国海关与边境保护局提供集装箱内装货物的详细说明。这项制度适用于一切停靠美国港口的船舶、所有输美货物或经过美国港口的货物。

此项规则不适用于不在美国港口靠岸的支线船舶和转运船舶。然而,若货物转运至停靠美国港口的船舶上,那么此项规则仍适用。

简单地说,24小时舱单规则可以做如下阐释:

如果船公司没有在装船前24小时向美国海关与边境保护局电子申报有关货物内容、集装箱托运人和收货人的详细提单(舱单)信息,该集装箱就不被允许装上驶往美国港口的轮船。如果在申报24小时内海关与边境保护局没有发出明确拒绝指令,那就默认其允许装船运往美国。

该规则要求提供的信息包括:

1发货人姓名和地址;

2收货人或货主姓名和地址;

3通知地址;

4提单号;

5提单上的唛头和号码;

6集装箱号和特征;

7封志号;

8货物描述;

9毛重或体积;

10件数;

11危险品国际代码;

12承运人接货的第一外国港口/地方;

13 货物装船的外国港口;

14直接出口的国外卸货港/目的港以及出口的运输方式;

15保税数据。

如果违反此规则,最严重的后果就是不准装卸货物,导致货物运输和供应链中断。此外,美国海关与边境保护局也会对承运人和负责向海关与边境保护局提交货物申报信息的相关者予以罚款或其他处罚。这项规则使美国海关与边境保护局工作人员在输美集装箱在国外港口装船前,而不是在其抵达美国港口后分析集装箱信息,甄别潜在的恐怖威胁。对空运货物,舱单信息必须在飞机起飞后直接传输至海关。此项规则最明显的作用就是规定了舱单或舱单前申报数据时限,也就是要更早地把相关装运数据提交给管理部门。其他要求还包括鉴别供应链上各式商业伙伴所需的更具体的货物描述和数据。

三、国际船舶和港口设施保安规则(ISPS 2004)

《国际船舶和港口设施保安规则》是一项国际海事组织(目前有167个成员国 )各成员国政府间的国际协定。作为一项国际性规则,它对各签约国政府具有强制性。《国际船舶和港口设施保安规则》解决供应链中港口设施和船舶部件的安全问题,旨在建立需要签约国政府、政府部门、当地管理部门和航运、港口产业多方合作的国际框架,从而实现以下目标:

1 发现、评估安全上的威胁,采取协调一致的预防方式应对影响用于国际贸易的船舶和港口设施安全的事件;

2 在国际和国内层面,确立所有相关方各自的定位与责任以保障航运安全;

3 保证相关安全信息的及时、有效的合作和互换;

4 提供安全评估方法,相应实施计划和程序以应对变化的安全级别;

5 确保离岸或到岸的商船具备充分、到位的海事安全措施。

《国际船舶和港口设施保安规则》适用于所有500总吨及以上货轮、客轮、移动式离岸钻井装置和为国际航运船舶提供服务的港口设施。在安保要求方面,主要是船舶和港口设施需进行安全评估,制订并实施安全计划,任命安保人员。安全评估必须甄别出资产和基础设施在应对安全问题时出现的薄弱环节。安保计划必须明确针对3个安全层级的主要威胁将采取的三级措施,以解决查明的薄弱环节。这项计划至少要包括访问控制、安全监控、限制区域、货物、仓储、分运行李,训练与操作以及安全职责和培训等内容。

《国际船舶和港口设施保安规则》在港口和船舶之间建立起一种长效的精心组织的强制性对话机制,要求他们互相申报或确认各自的安全级别。如果其中一方有违反安全的记录,则另一方要相应提高警告级别和程序,通常为加强其基础安保措施如访问控制、车辆搜查和加强巡查。

反复不遵守规则的船舶会受到越来越多的管制,将逐渐难以找到可停靠和进行操作的港口。船舶运营人会越来越不愿意在违规的港口靠岸。违规船舶和港口因此互相产生负面影响。最后,经常违规者会发现即使之前他们没有被逮捕或抵制,他们也已受到市场的排挤。

四、欧盟到达前和离境前项目(2009—2011)

这个项目是欧盟版的提前货物信息规则,欧洲委员会2005年开始提出建议,于2009年7月实施,2011年全面生效。该项目的制定旨在满足与跨国境货物有关的安保需要,包含了与美国集装箱安全倡议相关的要求,同时,和日后欧盟的电子海关计划保持一致。其目的是向海关提前提供进出欧共体关境的货物信息,以得出更精确的风险分析,并加快通关效率,使得不会因提早申报而给贸易商造成更多成本和不便。

五、日本提前货物信息(2007)

日本政府于2007年实施提前货物信息项目,这项规则适用于进入日本的海运和空运货物。对于海运船舶,规则要求船舶到达日本港前12小时至24小时递交以下货物信息:装船地点、目的地、唛头和号码、货物描述、数量、货物收发货人、提单号和集装箱号。

与此类似,空运货物在到达日本机场的前3至5小时之内必须提交货物信息。若不遵守,如未在指定时限内提交信息或者发送假信息,将受到以下处罚:(1)对往来外国和日本之间运输的船舶和航空器处以50万日元以下的罚款;(2)对其他船舶和航空器处以30万日元以下的罚款。

六、墨西哥24小时规则(2007)

墨西哥的24小时规则与其他国家的一些安保措施类似,要求运往墨西哥的海运货物运输者于货物在境外装货港装船前的24小时向墨西哥海关提交货物电子舱单。只要这些签发提单的海运承运人、货运代理和无船承运人把货物运往墨西哥,就必须向墨西哥海关申报他们的货物,无法替货物代理或无船承运客户申报的海运承运人除外。

七、美国“10+2”申报制度(2009—2010)

2009年1月,美国海关与边境保护局引入了一个新的项目——进口商安全申报,通常被称为“10+2”。它要求有关运往美国的货物安全的信息至少应当在货物装船前的24个小时传输至美国海关与边境保护局。这一新规则与《贸易安全与便利港口法案》第203节相符,要求进口商向海关与边境保护局提供10项数据元,承运人需额外提供2项数据元。

该项目的制定理念是海关无法仅依据海运承运人的提单作出最优和有效的风险评估。熟悉海运运输单据的人都知道如果集装箱满的话,在海运提单上的货物描述和装船信息仅仅是发货人的申报,实际上海运承运人根本无法证实。正因为如此,提单上加入了“集装箱中宣称的货物信息”和“发货人装货、理货和点货”条款。“10+2”就是要进口商直接提供另外一组数据来便于海关使用目标甄别和风险管理工具进行筛选。

如上所述,此项新规则自2009年1月26日起生效。海关与边境保护局已经在其实施和执行方面做了阶段性的努力。在最初的12个月里,进口商的违规行为只会受到警告,而不会被罚款。但是在这12个月的宽限期过后(也就是从2010年1月1日起),如果违规,进口商将会面临高达5000美元的罚款。

以下就是进口商安全项目下必须向海关与边境保护局传输的10项数据元:

1生产商名称和地址;

2卖方名称和地址;

3拼箱公司名称和地址;

4集装箱装货地址(货物装入集装箱的地址);

5买方名称和地址(最后的买家);

6货物送达的公司名称和地址(实际收货方);

7进口商的海关登记号;

8收货人号码;

9原产地;

10协调制度商品编号(六位数)。

海关与边境保护局还要求承运人至少在装船货物离开最后一个外国港口后48小时或在到达美国港口前48小时提供其他两项数据元:一是船运装载位置计划;二是集装箱的状况信息。

这使得海关与边境保护局能够查出输美集装箱在航运过程中的一些异常行为。

八、中国提前舱单申报管理办法

中国政府于2009年1月1日开始实施此办法,要求海运承运人在货物装船前24小时向中国海关提交海运提单或舱单(与以上提到的其他项目类似)。这项规则适用于所有进出中国港口和经中国转运的货物。

九、美国100%扫描(2012)

美国于2007年通过了一条名为《〈9·11委员会法案〉2007年执行建议》的法案,规定在2012年以后对所有目的地为美国的货物集装箱实施100%境外透视扫描以及非侵入式查验。由美国海关与边境保护局制定的这个项目被看做是以不损害国家经济活力并确保贸易便利的方式,通过阻止大规模杀伤性武器进入美国以加强国家安全的重要举措。

为达到这些要求,《贸易安全与便利港口法案》要求在3个港口推行项目试点阶段,以评估对输往美国的货物实行100%扫描的可行性。这些港口包括: 巴基斯坦的昆新港、洪都拉斯的科尔特斯港和英国的南安普顿港。在以上港口,出口至美国的货物100%需经过辐射扫描,并使用大型非侵入式成像设备拍摄货物图像。对辐射警报和扫描图像的分析可由现场海关与边境保护局工作人员或由海关与边境保护局国家目标甄别中心来完成(可参见“美国安全货运计划”一节)。

关于在2012年以后实行这条法律的能力、实用性和效果已有诸多争议。

许多美国的贸易伙伴,更确切地说是欧盟,认为这项法律义务是单边主义,且意味着治外法权。据许多分析人士认为,实行100%扫描所需要的技术在操作层面上几乎不可行。鉴于该法案要求的100%扫描的规模,有人担忧其对熟练的人力资源的大量需求最终会分散更专业化的非重复劳动中原本就短缺的人力资源。

该项目不仅预计投资和运行的成本极高,更有争议的是这条法律会带来的影响——人为转变运输流量和模式,从而更有利于较大的港口,不利于较小的港口。

为了说明整个商界,尤其是港口和水上运输产业对此感到的深度困惑,以下海关与边境保护局代理局长杰森·P阿亨于2009年4月1日在美国众议院拨款委员会国土安全分委会上就货运和集装箱安全问题所作声明的摘录内容说明了一切:

“对每年来自国外港口进入美国的所有1130万集装箱进行扫描在操作、技术以及外交上提出了巨大挑战,包括:

一是在极端气候条件和特定港口环境下扫描设备的可持续性;

二是实时将数据传回美国(国家调查中心)所需的各种高昂费用;

三是在不影响港口工作效率并得到当地政府同意的情况下重新规划港口布局以安放设备;

四是建立当地警报判断应对机制;

五是解决当地政府、货车业以及工会关心的健康和安全问题;

六是明确由谁来承担运行和维护扫描设备的费用;

七是通过货运安全倡议系统在处理集装箱之前获得必要的贸易数据;

八是解决扫描数据中存在的数据隐私问题;

九是与伙伴国家和终端操作方就设备的所有权、运行和维护,信息共享,进口关税因素方面的角色和职责问题达成书面协议;

十是为国外海关服务和终端操作方提供所需要的人员;

十一是确定扫描技术的许可要求;

十二是试点计划结束之后当地政府对前往美国的集装箱进行100%扫描的继续支持,以及相应地对美国出口的货物要求扫描的潜在可能。”

2008年,在世界海关组织的资助下,勒阿弗大学对相关成本进行了评估。经计算,若每年扫描42万只至5000只集装箱,扫描每个集装箱的成本约在10美元至440美元之间。

由于美国超过50%的进口货物在中国装载,新法律对亚洲港口运行的影响预计将是最大的。亚洲发货人委员会主席约翰·陆认为这项法律将会“减缓货物流动速度,使港口陷于拥堵”。


Compulsory SCS Programs

Compulsory SCS Programs

(Obtained from “Supply Chain Security Guide”,The World Bank)

(Translated by Liu Xinping,Bureau of Anti-Smuggling,and Sun Xiqian,Pudong International Airport Customs House)

1US Advance Cargo Information (ACI)

ACI is the concept that underpins the first compulsory SCS requirement,the 24 Hour Manifest Rule implemented by the US Customs in 2003 Additionally,US Customs & Border Protection (CBP) uses an Automated Targeting System (ATS) to support the ACI concept ATS is in fact an Intranet-based enforcement and decision support tool that is the cornerstone for all CBP targeting and risk management efforts CBP uses ATS to improve the collection,use,analysis,filtering and dissemination of the massive quantity of ACI information that is gathered for the primary purpose of targeting,identifying,and preventing potential terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the US

ACI is also an integral part of the World Customs Organizations SAFE Framework of Standards as one of the “four core elements” The WCO states that the “Framework harmonizes the advance electronic cargo information requirements on inbound,outbound and transit shipments” ACI is recognized in the US through the SAFE Ports Act

ACI provided by all the actors in the supply chain via the shipping lines allows Customs authorities to screen the imported containers,and make informed targeting and intervention decisions and to concentrate resources on the high risk issues and cargoes This procedure,based on a Risk Management approach is considered one of the “cornerstones” in most SCS programs

Some of the most relevant programs based on ACI are described hereunder,including the US 24 Hour Rule,the US “10+2” requirement,China 24 Hour Advanced Manifestation Rule,Mexico 24 Hour Rule and Japan ACI

2 24 Hour Rule (US) (2003)

The 24 Hour Rule requires sea carriers and Non-Vessel Operating Common Carriers (NVOCCs) to provide US Customs and Border Protection with detailed descriptions of the contents of sea containers bound for the US 24 hours before a container is loaded aboard the vessel at the last foreign port The Rule applies to all vessels which will call at a US port and all cargo destined for the US or carried via US ports to a non-US destination

The rule does not apply to feeder or transshipment vessels without a port call in the US However,the Rule does apply when the cargo is transshipped onto a vessel with a port of call in the US

In basic terms,the 24 hour manifest rule can be explained as follows:

The shipping lines are not allowed to load a container onboard a vessel bound to a US port if they have not previously electronically communicated the basic bill of lading (manifest) details of the cargo contents,shipper and consignee of the container to US Customs 24 hours before loading If the loading of a container is not expressly rejected by US Customs within 24 hours of the declaration,by default,it is allowed to be loaded to the US

The required information includes the following:

1 Shippers name and address.

2 Consignees or Owners name and address.

3 Notify Address.

4 Bill of Lading Number.

5 Marks and Numbers from Bill of Lading.

6 Container Numbers and Characteristics.

7 Seal Numbers.

8 Cargo Description.

9 Gross Weight or Measurement.

10 Piece Count.

11 Hazmat Code.

12 First Foreign port/place carrier takes possession.

13 Foreign Port where cargo is laden abroad.

14 Foreign discharge/destination port for Immediate Exports and Transportation for Exports.

15 In-bond data.



In the case of non-compliance with the Rule,the most important consequence is denial of loading or unloading and a consequent disruption of cargo flows and supply chains Furthermore,the US CBP may impose fines or other penalties on the carriers and others responsible for the submission of cargo declarations to US CBP The rule allows US CBP officers to analyze the content information of the container and identify potential terrorist threats before the US-bound container is loaded at the foreign seaport,and not after it has entered a US port As far as air transport is concerned,the information shall be submitted to CBP directly after the departure of the flight The most obvious impact of this rule deals with the timing of the manifest/pre-manifest data,ie the need to send shipment-related data to the regulatory bodies at an earlier stage Further requirements include the more detailed description of the goods and data requirements to identify the various business partners within the supply chain

3International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code (2004)

The ISPS Code is an international agreement between government member states of the International Maritime Organization (IMO),which currently number 167 Being an international code,ISPS imposes itself upon the Government of the signatory States The ISPS Code addresses the security of the port installations and vessel components of the supply chain The objective is to establish an international framework involving co-operation between signatory governments,government agencies,local administrations and the shipping and port industries to:

1 Detect/assess security threats and take harmonized preventive measures against security incidents affecting ships or port facilities used in international trade.

2 Establish the respective roles and responsibilities of all the parties concerned,at the national and international level,for ensuring maritime security.

3 Ensure the early and efficient collaboration and exchange of security-related information.

4 Provide a methodology for security assessments so as to implement plans and procedures to react to changing security levels; and

5 Ensure confidence that adequate and proportionate maritime security measures are in place,both ashore and on board merchant vessels

The ISPS Code applies to all cargo ships of 500 Gross Tons (GT) or above,passenger vessels,mobile offshore drilling units and port facilities serving such ships engaged on international voyages The security requirements generally call for ships and port facilities to conduct security assessments,develop and implement security plans,and appoint security officers and security personnel The security assessments must identify the vulnerabilities of assets and infrastructure to a security incident The security plan must specify the measures that will be implemented at three escalating security levels representing the prevailing threat environment to address the identified vulnerabilities At a minimum,the plan must address access control,security monitoring,restricted areas,cargo,stores and unaccompanied baggage,drills and exercises,and security duties and training

ISPS establishes a mandatory permanent and structured dialogue between ports and vessels,which have to mutually declare/confirm their respective level of security When one registers a security breach,the other has correspondingly raise its own alertness level and procedures,generally by intensifying basic security measures like: access control,searching of vehicles,increased patrolling

Recurrently non-compliant vessels will be subject to more and more controls,and will gradually experience difficulties to find ports that will welcome and operate them Vessel operators will become more and more reluctant to call at repeatedly non-compliant ports,as non-complaint ports or vessels mutually taint each other Eventually,serial offenders will find themselves ostracized by the market itself,if they are not arrested or boycotted before

4 Pre-arrival and Pre-departure (EU) (2009-2011)

This program is the EU version of ACI The program proposed by the European Commission began in 2005,will be implemented in July 2009 and will come into full effect in 2011 It has been designed to meet the need for safety and security in relation to goods crossing international borders,including requirements linked to the US CSI,while,at the same time,remaining in step with the EU e-Customs plans for the future Its intention is to provide Customs authorities with advance information on goods brought into,or exported from the Customs territory of the European Community This is intended to provide for better risk analysis,but at the same time,for quicker process and release upon arrival,resulting in a benefit for traders that should be equal to,if nor exceeding,any cost or disadvantage of providing information earlier than at present

5 Japan ACI (2007)

Implemented by the Japanese government in 2007,this ACI program is applicable to sea and air cargo arriving in Japan For ocean-going vessels it requires that the following cargo information: place of shipment,place of destination,marks & numbers,cargo descriptions,quantities,shippers and consignees of goods,bill of lading number and container number is made available at least 12 hours,but no longer than 24 hours,before the arrival of the vessel at the port of destination in Japan

Similarly,air cargo information is required at least three hours,but no longer than five hours before cargo arrives at the airport in Japan from overseas Failure to comply,such as not filing information by the specified deadline or providing false information,is subject to the following penalties: 1) for a vessel or aircraft which moves/flies between a foreign country and Japan for foreign trade 500000 JPY or less; 2) for a vessel/aircraft other than above 300000 JPY or less

6 Mexico 24-hour Rule (2007)

The Mexico 24-hour Rule,similar to the security regimes developed in other countries,requires all transporters of maritime cargo to Mexico to electronically submit cargo manifests to the Mexican Customs 24 hours prior to loading Mexico-bound shipments at foreign ports of loading Oceans carriers,freight forwarders and NVOCCs who issue bills of lading to transport cargo to Mexico must file through Mexico Customs for their shipments,with the exception that ocean carriers cannot file on behalf of their freight forwarder/NVOCC customers

7 “10+2”(2009-2010)

In January 2009,the US CBP introduced a new program,called the Importer Security Filing (ISF) or more commonly called “10+2”,which requires cargo information for security purposes to be transmitted to CBP at least 24 hours before goods are loaded on a vessel for shipment to the US This new rule is pursuant to section 203 of the SAFE Ports Act,and requires importers to provide 10 data elements to the CBP with the carrier providing 2 additional data elements

This program originates from the realization that CBP cannot derive the optimal,most efficient cargo risk assessments based only on ocean-carrier bill of lading data Those familiar with maritime transport documentation will recognize that the cargo description and shipment information mentioned on a maritime bill of lading is,in the case of full containers,solely a shippers declaration,which,by nature,the ocean carrier has no means to verify Hence the “container said to contain” and “shippers load,stow and count” clauses on the bill of lading “10+2” is meant to provide another set of data directly from the importer for screening by CBPs targeting and risk management tools

As mentioned above,the new rule came into effect on January 26,2009 CBP is taking a phased approach in terms of implementation and enforcement During the first 12 months,importers will be warned of infractions instead of being fined After this 12 month grace period, (that is,as from January 1st 2010),importers can face fines up to US $5000 for each violation

The following are the ten data elements that must be transmitted to CBP as part of the ISF Importer Security Filing (ISF):

1 Manufacturers name and address.

2 Sellers name and address.

3 Consolidators name and address.

4 Container stuffing location (Address at which goods loaded into a container).

5 Buyers name and address (Last named buyer).

6 Ship to name and address (Party physically receiving the goods).

7 Importer of records number.

8 Consignees number.

9 Country of origin.

10 Harmonized tariff schedule number (to the 6th digit).

CBP also requires two additional elements to be provided by the ocean carrier at least 48 hours after departure from the last foreign port,or prior to arrival for voyages less than 48 hours in duration:

1 Vessel stowage plan.

2 Container status message

This will enable CBP to detect erratic or abnormal behavior by a given container during sea-passage

8 China 24-hour Advance Manifest Rule

Starting in 1 January 2009,implemented by the Chinese government,requires ocean carriers to submit the manifest or the bill of lading (similar to those of other programs mentioned above) to the Chinese Customs 24 hours prior to loading of the cargo This rule is applicable to all export,import,and transshipped cargo via any Chinese ports

9 100% scanning (2012)

A bill was passed in the US in 2007 under the title “Implementing Recommendations of the United States 9/11 Commission Act of 2007” mandating overseas radiation scanning and NII inspection of 100% of all cargo containers destined for the US by 2012 Regulated by the US CBP,this program is seen as a major effort to enhance national security by preventing weapons of mass destruction (WMD) from entering the US,but in a way that does not compromise the economic vitality of the country and ensures trade facilitation

To fulfill these requirements,the SAFE Port Act mandated a pilot project phase in three ports to assess the feasibility of scanning 100% of shipments coming to the United States These ports included: Qasim,Pakistan; Cortes,Honduras; Southampton,UK At these ports,100 % of the cargo exported to the US is scanned for radiation,and an image of the contents is taken,using large scale non-intrusive imaging equipment The radiation alerts and scan images are analyzed either on the ground by CBP personnel,or back at the CBP National Targeting Center (see also the section on SFI).

There has been much debate surrounding the ability,practicality and effectiveness of implementing this law by 2012

Many trade partners of the US,more specifically the EU,consider this legal obligation as unilateral and implying extraterritoriality According to many analysts,the technologies needed to implement 100 % scanning are hardly available at an operational level On such a scale as imposed by the bill (100% scanning) there are concerns that the massive need for skilled manpower will end up diverting scant human resources from more specialized non-repetitive tasks

While investment and operational costs are predicted to be on the very high side,it is also argued that one impact of the legislation will be an artificial transformation of the traffic flows and patterns in favor of the bigger ports,to the prejudice of the smaller ones

To illustrate the deep puzzlement experienced by the Trade Community in general,and the port and maritime transport industry in particular,the below extract from the Testimony of Acting Commissioner Jayson P Ahern,US Customs and Border Protection,before the House Appropriations Committee,Subcommittee on Homeland Security,on Cargo and Container Security on April 1,2009 speaks for itself :

“Scanning all 113 million containers that enter (yearly)US seaports from a foreign port presents significant operational,technical,and diplomatic challenges They include:

1 Sustainability of the scanning equipment in extreme weather conditions and certain port environments.

2 Varying and significant costs of transferring the data back to the United States (National Targeting Center) in real-time.

3 Re-configuring port layouts to accommodate the equipment without affecting port efficiency and getting the permission of host governments.

4 Developing local response protocols for adjudicating alarms.

5 Addressing health and safety concerns of host governments and local trucking and labor unions.

6 Identifying who will incur the costs for operating and maintaining the scanning equipment.

7 Acquiring necessary trade data prior to processing containers through the SFI system.

8 Addressing data privacy concerns in regards to the scanning data.

9 Concluding agreements with partnering nations and terminal operators to document roles and responsibilities regarding issues such as ownership,operation,and maintenance of the equipment; sharing of information; and import duty and tax considerations.

10 Staffing implications for both the foreign customs service and terminal operator.

11 Licensing requirements for the scanning technology.

12 Host government support for continuing to scan 100 % of US bound containers after the pilot ends; and the potential requirements for reciprocal scanning of US exports”

An attempt to evaluate the related costs was made in June 2008 by the University of Le Havre,sponsored by WCO,gave a range of US$ 10 to US$ 440 per scanned container based on volumes ranging from 420000 to 5000 containers scanned per year Port operations in Asia are predicted to suffer the largest impact of the new law,since over 50% of US imports are loaded in China John Lu,Chairman of the Asian Shippers Council commented that the legislation will “slow down cargo and cause a gridlock at ports”.

为适应海关国际合作形势的发展与深化,满足海关现代化改革发展对海关对外交往与合作的现实需求,努力落实“四好”总体要求,上海海关在外事工作的实践基础上,借助海关关际合作、与商界交流合作等平台,介绍和解析当前国际海关工作的热点与难点,呈现国际海关的全新视角,以期与广大读者共同探询国际合作与海关业务改革发展的契合点,更好地务实推进海关国际合作,为海关改革与现代化建设服务。

本书共分为“供应链管理”、“海关三大技术支柱”、“国际海关最佳实践”三大板块。全书采用中英文对照形式,内容上既涵盖了供应链安全方面的常见问题、主要项目和最新技术,也有对海关估价、归类和原产地三大技术领域的知识普及和难点探究,同时亦关注全球海关所日益面临的非传统职能的改革与挑战,分享国际性战略项目在各国海关的推广及其实施经验。

“合抱之木,生于毫末;九层之台,起于累土。”我们将一如既往地遵循求真、务实的宗旨,本着严谨、踏实的态度,不断收集、编译有关国际海关的先进经验和最佳做法,以适应海关改革发展与国际做法接轨的需求,开拓更加广阔的交流平台。

第一编 供应链管理

        供应链管理常见问题 /3

        Frequently Asked Questions About Supply Chain Management /12

        强制性供应链安全项目 /24

        Compulsory SCS Programs /32

        自愿性供应链安全项目 /42

        Voluntary SCS Programs /51

        其他重要供应链安全项目 /62

        Other Significant SCS Programs /68

        供应链安全技术 /77

        Supply Chain Security Technologies /101

第二编 海关三大技术支柱

        WTO 估价知识简介 /137

        Customs Valuation WCO /150

         归类知识简介 /176

        Customs Classification /179

        FTA 原产地知识简介 /195

        Free Trade Agreements (FTA) /205

第三编 国际海关最佳实践

        韩国海关 UNIPASS电子通关系统 /221

        UNI-PASS Korean Customs Service /230

        协调的边境管理—加拿大协调的边境管理 /241

        Integrated Border Management in Canada /244

        协调的边境管理—欧盟协调的边境管理 /248

        Border management in the European Union /253

本书采取中英文对照形式,介绍和解析当前国际海关工作的热点和难点,呈现国际海关的全新视野。本书的内容既涵盖了供应链安全方面的常见问题、主要项目和最新技术,也有对海关估价、商品归类和原产地三大技术领域的知识普及和难点探究,同时关注全球海关日益面临的非传统职能的改革与挑战,分享国际性战略项目在各国海关的推广及其实施经验。

本书由上海海关关员精心翻译,内容丰富,实用性强。在适应海关国际合作形势的发展与深化、满足海关对外交往与合作现实需求的同时,还为广大读者了解国际海关业务热点及其发展趋势提供了良好的平台。

一、编辑部联系方式

        联 系 人:钟刘

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