您的位置:首页 > 信息公开 > 海关统计 > 数据公布特殊标准(SDDS) > 数据诠释 Meta Data

Explanatory Notes to the Merchandise Trade Statistics

0. Prerequisites

0.1 Legal environment

0.1.1 Responsibility for collecting, processing, and disseminating statistics

TheCustoms Law of the Peoples Republic of China(hereinafter referred to asCustoms Law)adopted by the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress on January 22nd, 1987 and promulgated by the Decree of the President of the Peoples Republic China provides the legal basis for General Administration of Customs of China (GACC) to undertake statistical work related to merchandise trade.GACCis mandated to compile external merchandise trade statistics by Article 2 of theCustoms Law.

The Regulation on Customs Statistics of Peoples Republic of China(promulgated by State Council No. 454,hereafter referred to as the Regulation) for the implementation ofCustoms LawandStatistics Law ofthe Peoples Republic of Chinadefines the tasks and guiding principles of statistical work, concepts and definitions used for compiling Customs statistics, lays down the methodological basis forcollecting,processingand disseminating external merchandise trade statistics.Article 17 specifies that customs statistics be made available to the public.

The Statistics Department in GACC is responsible for drafting regulations and procedures for merchandise trade statistics, directing nation-wide trade statistics operations, conducting trade data analyses, compiling and disseminating trade statistics.  Statistics offices are present in all 42 customs districts. The offices are responsible for trade data collection, verification, processing and transmission to GACC. Currently, there are around 1500 customs officers working on trade statistics.

0.1.2 Data sharing and coordination among data producing agencies

GACCis legally responsible for the whole process of externalmerchandisetrade statistics from data collectionto dissemination.Statistical information is collected and processed in local customs offices, thentransferredvia internalwork-net to customs headquarter for final review and dissemination.

0.1.3 Confidentiality of individual reporters' data

Article 18 ofThe Regulationspecifies that the individual reportersdata obtained in the process ofcompilingstatistics shall be kept confidential. In practice, the above-mentioned statistical information shall not be provided to any third party without the permission of the data provider.

0.2 Resources

0.2.1 Staff, facilities, computing resources, and financing

The Statistics Department in GACC is responsible for drafting regulations and procedures for merchandise trade statistics, directing nation-wide trade statistics operations, conducting trade data analyses, compiling and disseminating trade statistics.  Statistics offices are present in all 42customs districts. The offices are responsible for trade data collection, verification, processing and transmission to GACC. Currently, there are around 1500 customs officers working on trade statistics.

Computer editing programs are used to check the accuracy of the data. The editing programs include validation of the reported codes against lists of acceptable codes. Fields that are validated include the HS code, statistical value and quantity, trading partner and customs regime. Lists of acceptable codes for specific transactions are also used for validation purposes. Errors are corrected by customs statisticians after verifying with the importers or exporters.

0.2.2 Ensuring efficient use of resources

Resources at GACC are commensurate with needs of statistical programs.A comprehensive review program of the quality assurance mechanism of various statistical systems has been established.The monitoring is undertaken at a micro and macro level of data.

1. Integrity

1.1 Professionalism

1.1.1 Impartiality of statistics

Since 1980,the International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Concepts and Definitions(IMTS)of the UN Statistics Division has been applied in compiling the China external trade statistics, which ensures the methodology of customs statistics is internationally acknowledged.

In practice,GACCsstatisticiansarecompelled by lawnot to tamper or forge statistics.They are also entitled to stop and expose any contrived interference that mightaffectthe objectivity and authenticity of statistics.

1.1.2 Selection of data sources, methodology, and modes of dissemination

Source

Customs statistics are compiled from the declarations submitted to the Customs by importersandexporters.The statisticalinformationtaken fromthesedeclarations includes: commodity code and description, quantity,value,partner country (origin, final destination,andconsignment),type of customs regimes,individual importer or exporter,domestic destination for imports,place oforiginfor exports,customs districts of clearance,andmode of transportation among others.

Time of recording

Exports are recorded on the date when the goods are clearedfromCustomswhile imports are recorded on the date when the goods are released from Customs.

Dissemination

Customsstatisticsaredisseminated on a monthly basis.Statistics are accessible to the public via internet, publications or other media.The release calendar is announced in advance by the end of year.

1.2 Transparency

1.2.1 Disclosure of terms and conditions for statistical collection, processing, and dissemination

The Regulation defines the tasks and guiding principles of statistical work, and concepts and definitions used for compiling Customs statistics, lays down the methodological basis for compiling and disseminating external trade statistics, Article 17 specifies that customs statistics be made available to the public.The Customs Lawandthe Regulation are published and available on GACC website (www.customs.gov.cn). 

The Regulationdefines the coverage, statistical items, the source of the statistics, the collection, processing and dissemination, which ispublished and available on GACC website (www.customs.gov.cn).

To facilitate the implementation ofThe Regulation, GACC promulgated the decree No. 153 in 2006to definethe methodology of external trade statistics, which is also available on GACC website.

1.2.2 Internal governmental access to statistics prior to release

GACC provides monthly summarized trade data to relevant officials of the State Council1-2days before the release of the data.

1.2.3 Attribution of statistical products

Trade data are released by GACC together with an analytical report on Chinas monthly or annual trade performance. The report focuses on import and export by major commodities, major trading partners, modes of trade and main trends.

1.2.4 Advance notice of major changes in methodology, source data, and statistical techniques.

Major changes in methodology are published in advance through GACC administrative regulation and Notes within China Customs Statistics publications.

1.3 Ethical standards

1.3.1 Guidelines for staff behavior

All staff should abide by the Article 18 oftheRegulation on Customs Statistics. The customs statisticianshave the obligation to safeguard the secrets of the State and commercial secrets that theyacquirefrom the course of recording.

2. Methodology

2.1 Concepts and definitions

2.1.1 Concepts and definitions

Since 1980, the compilation of Customs statistics follows the concepts and definitions recommended by the United Nations for use in international trade statistics, that isInternational Merchandise Trade Statistics: Concepts and Definitions, (IMTS).

Coverage

Customs statistics coverall merchandise passing through the customs territory of PRChinaexcluding the following types of goods:temporary imports or exports,goods on lease for less than one year,personal effects of travelers,goods consigned to diplomatic missionsandgoods in transit.

Since 1995,goodsentering bonded warehouses or special customs control areas arerecorded as imports when placed into the warehouses from abroadand vice versa.Prior to 1995,suchgoods were not recorded as imports until being withdrawn from the warehouses forfinaluse.

Commodity classification

Since 1992,an8-digit classification based upon the HarmonizedSystem(HS)has beenused for collecting and compiling trade statistics. The statistical nomenclatureof 2015contains about82938-digit commodity subdivisions: the first six digits correspond to the HS 2012, the 7th and the 8th digitsare national subheadings established for purposes of tariff, trade statistics or trade policy measures. SITC Rev.4isalsoused for trade analysis.During 1980-1991, customs statistics were classified using a 6-digitclassificationbased upon SITC Rev.2.

Quantity

Quantities of imports or exports are recorded in units as specified for each classification subheading in the Nomenclature for China Customs Statistics. The weight recorded represents the net weight of goods. 

Valuation

Imports are valued on aCIFbasis and exports on aFOBbasis.

Trading partner

The country of origin is reported for imports and the country oflast-knowndestination is recorded for exports. The country of consignment is also recorded for imports and exports as additional information.

2.2 Scope

2.2.1 Scope

2.2.1.1 Scope of the data

Trade system and statistical territory:

Since 1995, the general trade systemhasbeenused for recording merchandise trade. Prior to 1995, the special trade system was used.

The statistical territory of merchandise trade statistics coincides with the customs territory of the People's Republic of China (PR China), excluding the separate customs territories of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan Province.

 Coverage

Customs statistics cover all merchandise which enter or leave the customs territory of PR China and add to or subtract the stock of material sources of China, excluding the following types of goods: temporary imports or exports, goods on lease for less than one year, personal effects of travelers, goods consigned to diplomatic missions, goods for repair and goods in transit.

Since 1995, goodsentering bonded warehouses have been recorded as imports when placed into the warehouses from abroad. Prior to 1995, such goods were not recorded as imports until being withdrawn from the warehouses for final use.

2.2.1.2 Exceptions to coverage

Following types of goods are excluded: temporary imports and exports, goods on lease for less than one year, personal effects of travelers, goods consigned to diplomatic missions, confiscated contrabands, and goods in transit.

2.3 Classification

2.3.1 Classification

Since 1992, an 8-digit classification based upon the Harmonized System (HS) has been used for collecting and compiling trade statistics. The current statistical nomenclature contains about 8245 8-digit commodity subdivisions: the first six digits correspond to the HS 2012, the 7th and 8th digits are national subheadings established for purposes of tariff, trade statistics or trade policy measures. Customs statistics has been classified using a 6-digit classification based upon SITC Rev.4, while during 1980-1991 it was based upon SITC Rev. 2, and during 1992-2006 upon Rev. 3.  

2.4 Basis for recording

2.4.1 Valuation

The imported goods are valued by C.I.F. valuation and the exported goods by F.O.B valuation.

The WTO Agreement on Valuation is used for the customs valuation on imported goods.

3. Accuracy and reliability           

3.1 Source data

3.1.1 Source data collection programs

Merchandise trade statistics (Customs statistics) are compiled from the declaration documents and relevant electronic data which are submitted to Customs by importers and exporters and verified by customs.

The merchandise trade statistics are based on the clearances data of thecomputer systems. Any other sources, such as surveys and censuses, are not considered for merchandise trade statistics.

3.1.2 Source data definitions, scope, sectorization, classifications, valuation, and time of recording

The import and export declarations including specifications of goods, such as quantity, weight, price, country of origin/destination and any other information. The declaration is filed at the customs office on behalf of the owner of goods by a customs broker, through an EDI system.

3.1.3 Source data timeliness

Declaration with the Customsofficeshall be made by the consignee for importofgoods within 14 days after the inbound means of transportationdeclares its arrival and, unless specially approved by the Customs, 24 hours before loading for export goods by the consignor.

Upon processing and verification as necessary,preliminarydataofmerchandise statistics are released withintwoweeks from end of the statistical month.

3.2 Assessment of source data

3.2.1 Source data assessment

The declarations submitted by importers/exporters are matched against cargo manifests to ensure that there is no omission of declaration.

Import and export declaration data can be provided directly to theGACCthroughH2010Customs clearance management system.

Different quality checks are undertaken (validity checks, price controls, and logical controls) before the final release of the data.

3.3 Statistical techniques

3.3.1 Source data statistical techniques

ProcessingSystem:Statistics Data Integrated ManagementSystem.andTrade Statistics Data System

ProcessingDepartment: The processing takes place including thestatisticsdepartment of GACC and statistics divisions in the 42 customs districts.

Commodity detail: Data are available at the8-digit HS level.

3.4 Data validation

3.4.1 Validation of intermediate results

As part of validation checks, data to-be-releasedare reviewed against the historical data at detailed level.  Where applicable, data are also checked against other related statistical indicators.

Datachecks areexecutedbothbyGACC and Customs Districts, essentially to ensure that the transmission of the requested data have been carried out satisfactorily, that datasets are complete, error-free, and there are no extreme values (outliers).

3.5 Revision studies

3.5.1 Revision studies and analyses

In addition to the 3-stage quality assurance routine, a special team consisting of skilled customs statistics officers from both theHeadquarter and local customs offices review the quality of data every 6 months. The errors found by the team is informed and corrected at the customs district level and then the updating of the database in theHeadquarter occurs. The team produces a quality report for internal referenceafter the review, which contains the characteristics of the error detected and the suggestions to the improvement of data quality.

4. Serviceability

4.1 Periodicity and timeliness

4.1.1 Periodicity

Monthly and annual merchandise trade statistics are compiled and published on a calendar year basis.

4.1.2 Timeliness

Monthly provisional trade data are released by GACC through news media within 13 days after the reference month. Detailed data are available within 21days after the reference month.GACCissues two series of publications ofChina Customs Statistics, that is, a monthly bulletin and a yearbook, both in Chinese and English. The monthly publication is available within 25 days after the reference month. The yearbook is available within 9 months after the reference year.

4.2 Consistency

4.2.1 Internal consistency

Computer editing programs are used to check the accuracy of the data. The editing programs include validation of the reported codes against lists of acceptable codes. Fields that are validated include the HS code, statistical value and quantity, trading partner and customs regime. Lists of acceptable codes for specific transactions are also used for validation purposes. Errors are corrected by customs statisticians after verifying with the importers or exporters.

Merchandise trade data are compiled at 8-digit level of commodity classification of HS in terms of quantity and value and by individual trading partners, which could assist users in comparing Chinas trade data with trading partnerscorresponding data.

4.2.3 Intersectoral and cross-domain consistency

Since 1988, bilateral reconciliation studies have been undertaken with EC, US, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Russia, Canada, Kazakhstan,etc.with a view to study the sources of discrepancies between the trade data published by China and itstrading partners.

4.3 Revision

4.3.1 Revision and/or update schedule

The statistics will go through 3 phases of verification: primary check at the customs houses (local offices), intense check at customs districtsand final review at headquarters along with the datatransferred.In the first and second phases, once an error is detected andconfirmedwith the importer or exporter, the error will be corrected immediately in the local database.The correction records will be pooled together and transferredto GACC by the end of month. In the last phase, the correction is taken place on a monthly basis in accordance with thepriorityof dissemination.

To ensure the credibility of the statistics, customs organize specific review semi-yearly.

When the review on the whole years data is finished and the yearbook is published, the revision will stop.

4.3.2 Identification of preliminary and/or revised/updated data

Preliminary statistics are markedprovisionalwhen published.

5. Accessibility

5.1 Data

5.1.1 Statistical presentation

Merchandise Trade Statistics include: commodity code and description, quantity, value, partner country (origin, final destination, and consignment), type of customs regimes, type of enterprises, individual importer or exporter, domestic destination for imports, place of origin for exports, customs districts of clearance, mode of transport.

5.1.2 Dissemination media and format

5.1.2.1 Hard copy - News release

Monthly preliminary trade data are releasedwithin13 days after the reference month through CCTV and Xinhua News Agency,China Daily,Economic Daily,International Business Daily,Economic Reference, andInternational Trade News

5.1.2.3 Hard copy - Monthly Bulletin

Monthly publications :

"China Customs Statistics Monthly" (Chinese and English)

China External Trade Index(Chinese)

5.1.2.4 Hard copy - Quarterly bulletin

A press conference is organized to disseminate and briefly explains the statistics on a quarterly basis.

5.1.2.5 Hard copy - Other

Other Publications:

"China Customs Statistics Yearbook" (Chinese and English)

5.1.2.6 Electronic - On-line bulletin or data

www.customs.gov.cn

www.chinacustomsstat.com

5.1.2.7 Electronic - Other

Access: Dissemination Formats: Diskette

As requested by users

Access: Dissemination Formats: CD ROM

As requested by users

5.1.3 Advance release calendar

Since 2003, China Customs publish in advance the Trade Data Release Calendar in the China Customs website and other publications. The next years release calendar would be published in December each year, and updated yearly.

5.1.4 Simultaneous release

Monthly provisional trade data are released within 13days after the reference month through CCTV and Xinhua News Agency,China Daily, Economic Daily, International Business Daily, Economic Reference,andInternational Trade News.Statistics are also published on the customs website.Since 2013, the state council press conference is organized quarterly for the data dissemination.

Monthly publicationChina Customs Statisticsis released by 25thof each month. The annual publicationChina Customs Statistics Yearbookis available by August of the year following the reference year. Both are priced publications and available to the public through annual subscription or directly from the following authorized agencies:

For monthly and annual publication of Chinese version: China Customs Publishing House, Add: No1DongSi Huang NanRoad, Tel: 8610-65194242;Fax: 8610-65194245; Email:fx@zghgzz.sina.net

For monthly publication of English version: Economic Information amp; Agency,Add: 16/F, 342 Hennessy Road, Hong Kong, Tel: 852-25722289; Fax: 852-28342985; Web-site:http://www.eiahk.com/customs/, Email: eiaet@pacific.net.hk

For annual publication of the English version: Goodwill Information Limited, Add: Unit803-804, Datong Building,8FlemingRoad, Hong Kong, Tel: 852-29739133; Fax: 852-25309820;

Web-site:http://www.b2bchina.com.hk., Email:info@goodwill.com.hk.

5.1.5 Dissemination on request

A individual agency affiliated to GACCprovides statistics service to meet the customized needs which is beyond the released statistics mentioned above.

5.2 Metadata

5.2.1 Dissemination of documentation on concepts, scope, classifications, basis of recording, data sources, and statistical techniques

The methodology for compiling merchandise trade statistics is based on IMTS. Methodological notes are published inChina Customs Statistics MonthlyandYearbook.Data users can also browse the information on methodology atwww.customs.govandwww.customsstat.com

5.2.2 Disseminated level of detail

China Customs Statistics MonthlyandYearbookincludethe imports and exports broken down by the trading partner, commodities both in HS chapter and SITC chapter, customs regimes, characteristics of the ownership of the traders, registration locations of the traders, domestics locations of imports and exports, major commodity groups.The statistics service agency provides tailored statistics for anycombinations of the above-mentioned dimensions.

5.3 Assistance to users

5.3.1 Dissemination of information on contact points

The information the methodology, publications, tailor-made service and frequently-asked questions are available to the public on the customswebsite(www.customs.gov.cn), among which, the hotline, contacts andbriefingon the methodology are also released in the publications.

Contact Person(s):

Contact 1

Prefix/First Name/Last Name:

Qian

Li

Title:

Deputy director

Division:

Trade statistics division

Department:

Statistics Department

Agency:

General Administration of Customs of China

Address1:

No 6 Jian Guo Men Nei Str.

City/State:

Beijing

Postal Code:

100730

Phone: Country Code/ Number

86

10

65195640

Fax: Country Code/ Number

86

10

65195610

Email:

liqian@mail.custosms.gov.cn

Contact 2

Prefix/First Name/Last Name:

Hongman

JIN

Title:

Deputy director general

Department:

Statistics Department

Agency:

General Administration of Customs of China

Address1:

No 6 Jian Guo Men Nei Str.

City/State:

Beijing

Postal Code:

100730

Phone: Country Code/ Number

86

10

65195602

Fax: Country Code/ Number

86

10

65195610

Email:

jin_hm@mail.customs.gov.cn

浏览次数:

打印本页 关闭

版权所有:中华人民共和国海关总署 京ICP备17015317号

地址: 北京市建国门内大街6号 邮编: 100730 电话: 010-65194114(总机)